Thursday, 3 February 2011

Is EU convergence an impossible dream or even desirable

The pace of change towards knowledge based societies is increasing with an enormous growth in foreign direct investments (FDI) in the Central and East European states as seen in Figures 1 [1].  However, these are highly variable and tend to lead to single supply chain investments that during periods of global recession can put these supply chains at risk Figure 2 [1].

A knowledge economy is characterised by a high dependency on human capital [2,3] and through transition and skills development it is possible to re-invent regional competitiveness [4]. Advanced industrial economies will soon generate 50% of their GDP and employment from knowledge based industries and over 70% of total company value is in knowledge or skill based assets [5]

Therefore, a model that can create vital, viable and vibrant economies will support the diffusion of knowledge within a more diversified and sustainable economy while minimising single supply chain dependences.   In migrating from a post-industrial society to one based on knowledge, economies need to reverse the depletion of skills and knowledge from repeated urbanisation cycles and develop the works force to meet the needs of the economy.

Such economic transitions benefit from access to university and business interactions [6] and a focus on the way knowledge is transferred to the workforce. Building on Schumpeterian economic models of “creative destruction”, innovation is a key driver for competitive capitalism and the development of social and human capital [7,8] and in identifying champions [9] to drive through this diffusion of knowledge. 

Is accession state governance adequate to support economic convergence
An effective economic development model should identify the appropriate quest [10],  harness and access existing knowledge, tacit and explicit [11], to aid the route to market [12] and form knowledge clusters and skills pools capable of deploying improved competitive advantage and wealth creation [13].

Knowledge economies rely on boundary workers moving easily between sectors to maintain networks of informal information sources to distribute knowledge effectively.  In accession pathways fragmentation or abuse of knowledge [14] can result in chaotic growth and the successful development of absorptive capacity [15].

Therefore, any model should endeavour to minimise the difficulty of establishing administrative adequacy [16,17] and in retaining trained staff expertise over the funding cycle[18].  

It is critical to recognise and promote “learning by doing”, by allowing time to gain knowledge as well as the know-how, to make it work.   The tacit knowledge or know-how to make it work is an essential element of mentoring or twinning programmes where it is hoped that experience can be shared and transferred in a sustainable manner.

Can new access states ever reach convergence with established EU states

EU accession states experience rapid economic changes and cycles during transition to a new economic model and responding to the recent global economic crisis [19].

However, when the relationship, as shown in Figure 3, between accession states and the original six member countries as the base GDP reference economy is compared, the convergence clusters reflect their original economic profiles in contrast to EU convergence strategies and reports [20].

Indeed the absence of any significant industrialisation within these economies or time taken to develop effective multi-level government structures [21] has a significant effect on the development of a post-industrial knowledge based economy [22].

Agriculture continues to diminish as a proportion of GDP, Figure 4, and this reflects its relative contribution to the rural economy and the need to generate viable alternatives that can replace or increase value added products at the local level.  By supporting the creation of knowledge concentrations [23] it is possible to build sustainable competitive advantage.

To create economic growth, firms must seek knowledge [24] and clusters of expertise or knowledge can assist in sharing or accessing local tacit knowledge potentially making proximity important measure in retaining relevant and transferable knowledge.

Therefore these differences in national GDP levels can support local and regional cooperative comparative advantages that can be exploited for the benefit of rural economies [25] and can help develop economises of scale and specialisation[26,27].

 Is this failure of convergence a sustainable regional comparative advantage

Source: Eurostat [28]

Convergence is highly variable across the regions [28,29] with long term consequences for the development in less developed and rural areas [30] as knowledge based economies migrate to the most developed areas. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate how newer EU economic regions are clustered together.  While convergence across the EU is variable, convergence at a regional level allows the development of skills and competitive advantage locally [31].

Source: Eurostat [28]

Thus, the real possibility that economic convergence is an unattainable goal for the European Union lays bare the challenges moving forward for the Eurozone.  However, at the regional level local failures to converge offer real potential to retain  comparative advantage to create viable, vital and vibrant economies.


[1]        Reinventing European growth, Ernst & Young’s European Attractiveness survey, 2009, EGYM Limited$FILE/EY_European_Attractiveness_Survey_2009.pdf
[2]           Powell, W. and Snellman,K., The Knowledge Economy, Annual review of Sociology, 2004,  vol 30, 199-220

[3]           Wolfe,D.,A., and Bramwell,A., Innovation, creativity and governance: Social dynamics of economic performance in city-regions.   Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice vol 10  Issue: 2-3 Innovation and the City - Innovative Cities, 2008, 170-182

[4]           Glaeser, E., Reinventing Boston:1640:2004, Journal of Economic Geography, 2004, 5, 119-153
[5]           Skills for the future. (2007)  Accenture Ltd.
[6]           Temouth, P., Gamer, C., Mongeon, M. Cope, J. and Kneller, R., University –Business interaction: a comparative study of mechanisms and incentives in four countries, 2009,  Council for Industry and Higher Education, London
[7]           Ederer, P., Innovation at Work:The European Human Capital Index, The Lisbon Council for Economic Competitiveness and Social Renewal, 2006, Belgium
[8]           Ederer,P., Schuler, P. and Willms, S. The European Human Capital Index: The Challenge of Central and Eastern Europe The Lisbon Council for Economic Competitiveness and Social Renewal, 2007 Belgium
[9]           Rogers, E. M. Diffusion of innovations, 1962, New York: Free Press
[10]         Stokes, D., Pasteur’s Quadrant, The Brookings Institution, 1997,Washington DC
[11]         Cash, A., Hughes A., and Lester R. K., U.K. plc: Just How Innovative Are We?, 2006,  Cambridge, U.K.:Cambridge-MIT Institute.
[12]         Abreu, M., Grinevich, V., Hughes, A., Kitson, M., and Ternouth, P., Universities, business and knowledge exchange, Council for Industry and Higher Education, 2008,  London
[13]         Knowledge Transfer partnerships, , 2010, Crown Copyright
[14]         Fink-Hafner, D. Europeanization in managing EU Affairs: between divergence and Convergence, a comparative study of Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia. Public Administration, 2007, Vol. 85, No. 3, (805–828)
[15]         Emerson, M., Aydin, S., De Clerck-Sachsse, J. and  Noutcheva, G. Just what is this “absorption capacity” of the European Union, Policy Brief ,2006, No 113, Sept, Centre for European Policy  Studies
[16]         Recovery of SAPARD funds begin. (2007)
[17]         Author’s personal knowledge gained from discussions with a variety of accession state central and regional government ministries and agencies between 2002 and  2006
[18]         Šumpíkov,M., Pavel,J. and Klaza, S., EU Funds: Absorption Capacity and Effectiveness of Their Use, with Focus on Regional Level in the Czech Republic, 2004,
[19]         Dolphin,T. and Chappell, L., The Effect of the Global Financial Crisis on Emerging and Developing Economies. Sept Report (2010), Institute for Public Policy Research, London,
[20]         Growing Regions, Growing Europe. Fourth report on Economic and Social Cohesion, Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2007, Luxembourg.
[21]         Meyer-Sahlin, J-H., Sustainability of civil service reforms in central and eastern Europe five years after EU accession. Sigma paper N.44 Gov / Sigma, 2009, OECD
[22]         Chorianopoulos, I. North-South local authority and governance differences in EU networks. European Planning Studies, 2003,Vol 11, No. 6, pp 671-695
[23]         Smith, S.C., Innovation and market strategy in Italian Cooperatives: Econometric evidence on organisational comparative advantage. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,1994,  Vol 23, Issue 3, May, Pages 303-320
[24]         Simmie, J., Innovation and urban regions as national and international nodes for transfer and sharing of knowledge. Regional Studies, 2003,vol. 37. 6&7, pp 607-620
[25]         Stevens, C., Mapping innovation, The OECD Observer, 1997 ,No.207, Aug/Sept. pp16-19
[26]         Kaldor, N., The case for regional policies, Scot. J. Pol. Econ., 1970, November, pp337-48
[27]         Dixon,R.J. and Thirwall, A.P., A model of regional growth rate differentials along Kaldorian lines, Oxf. Econ. Pap, 1975 27(2): pp 201-214
[29]         Bachtlet,J. Gorzelak, G. Reforming EU cohesion policy: A re-appraisal of the performance of the structural funds. Policy Studies, 2007, Vol 28, No. 4, 309-326
[30]         Rizov, M., Rural Development Perspectives in Enlarging Europe: The Implications of CAP Reforms and Agricultural, Transition in Accession Countries. European Planning Studies, 2006, Vol. 14, No. 2,pp 219-238
[31]         Chorianopoulos, I., Urban Restructuring and Governance :North–South Differences in Europe and the EUURBAN Initiative. Urban Studies, 2002, Vol. 39, No. 4, 705–726

Economic downturn: Crisis or ‘growing’ opportunity

Do you want to drastically reduce your weekly grocery bill, earn extra cash to cover increased living expenses or just find work in a secure and growing sector?

The financial crisis has led us to think more about our financial situation and to rethink our options when it comes to employment and saving money. The Horticultural sector, including careers in Horticulture, offers us a number of potential answers.

Options include growing vegies at home or buying from Farmers Markets. Farmers Markets are booming and so are the hobby farms and small businesses that supply them. Some major seed companies have apparently reported double digit growth in vegetable seed sales across Australia in recent years.

If you are looking for a career change, the Horticultural career sector is thriving. According to Academy Zone adviser Dr James MacAskill, more than half of the UK's  professional horticulturists left the industry in some sectors in recent years.  Dr MacAskill said ‘As a result there is a deficiency in qualified horticulturists’. Anyone who has a background in plant science, can tell a weed from a plant and can properly identify at least 300 different plants will have a large range of possibilities for work in front of them.  Academy Zone is in a unique position to help, offering a range of horticulture courses and qualifications ranging from Certificates to Diplomas.

As finances tighten, workers are increasingly forced to look for a second job to make ends meet. Horticulture also offers a huge range of potential part time employment opportunities, from lawn mowing to working in plant nurseries or places such as Garden Centre Group or B&Q with many of these business requiring extra workers on the weekend. The earning potential of workers within the Horticulture Field has also increased. There are some 83,000 people employeed in  over 1700 production horticulture companies in the UK earning from £8 per hour to £25 per hour.  According to Dr MacAskill, ‘Five years ago, people would mow lawns and tidy gardens for £5 per hour. Today in cities gardens it can be difficult to get your lawn mown or garden tidied for less than £20 per hour.’

Academy Zone Distance Education offers over 120 courses in horticulture from hobby to diploma level.  To ensure you have the right advice to start your horticulture career ACS provides Free Course & Career Counselling.  Contact, or visit

Wednesday, 19 January 2011

Sleepwalking to oblivion : terminal effects of policy drift

Most government policy starts off as a research substantiated and well intended legislative directive aimed at creating a significant societal shift.   Significant events in political history such as the creation of the National Health Service or the abolition of the 11 plus were all aimed at creating a fairer society and one based on meritocracy and egalitarianism spirit.
However, the enactment of policy without substantive reviews or updating over time can significantly impact on its intended effect.   Following repeated tinkering and amendments as the result of self-interest pressure groups and lobbyists, the original policy is no longer fit for purpose.  
The UK education system has been held to ransom for over thirty years by all political parties hoping to buy votes and promote rhetoric and dogma such as the abolition of grammar school for no substantive policy effect.   Thus failure to launch a truly comprehensive education system that promoted equal opportunity for all has been allowed to drift to one of bereft of aspiration and aims for the lowest common denominator.  The recent promotion of Lord Baker for the revival of technical schools is an attempt to recover past glory.   Yet it is misplaced.   The real problem lies in the corrosive nature of policy drift and absence of ownership of its consequences.
Policy drift has allowed poor management structures within the school system to deflect comprehensive education into a system seeking to provide opportunity for the educationally poorest in society while reducing opportunities for the most gifted.   Leadership failures both in faculties of education and in school management have resulted in a drift to inclusion at all costs rather than providing opportunity for all to achieve their best in the timeframe they need to achieve their qualifications and skills.   As a result we have a large proportion of disenfranchised school children and students who are failing to achieve not because they are not talented, rather they are being forced to study subjects that offer them no satisfaction or reward.   Combine this with poor teaching pedagogy, lack of vocational teaching skills and fatal policy drift at local and central government levels, you have a recipe for disaster and the perfect storm for an educational dark age for Britain.
It is time for the silent majority to voice their disillusion with education. The devaluing of university degrees, the lack of aspiration and the absence of role models that champion the benefits of a good education rather than the current attitude that celebrity is a perceived route for the many which in reality is an opportunity for the few.  Paradoxically, we have drifted our way into an elitist culture while thinking we are celebrating equality of opportunity.
Educational Policy requires an unyielding political bravery to review what the country requires now and to bring forward a radical agenda that will allow those good at technical skills to progress to their best ability while those capable of academic progress do so to their best ability.  It is time to stop dumbing down and celebrate elitism both technical and academic.   The German Ausbildungsberufetrade system and their Berufsschule or vocational schooling system has delivered an effective dual educational system to support the needs of the German economy.
Where to now for UK plc?  Oblivion or a new egalitarian entrepreneurial society.             

Tuesday, 7 December 2010

Ahoj, 你好, Helló, أهلا, Daar, Powitanie, Buna ziua : Welcome to doing business abroad

Surprisingly,  internationalisation is off the SME agenda.   This is despite the documented benefits experienced by the so called “Born Global” companies.  These companies not only gain profitability as a result of internationalisation, they experience higher rates of growth and improved innovation.
Internationalisation offers your business larger product markets, improved productivity and an ability to diversify your organisation’s value chain potentially reducing risk to economic downturns.
It need not be a daunting exercise if you follow five simple steps that have been tried and tested by the author over 25 years in international development.
  1. Set your quest and goals
  2. Identify your value chain  and offer suitable for internationalisation
  3. Understand global production costs and your innovation inventory
  4. Develop your strategic capability and operational plan that will allow you identify and target local champions and advocates to support your cause
  5. Implement your plan ruthlessly through your local champion / manager and visit the targeted market frequently to monitor progress,  build trust and develop team motivation and loyalty through social as well as business events.
One of the most important elements of internationalisation [more at Welcome to doing business abroad ]

Delivering a new paradigm in management training


Graduates, perhaps at no other time in an economic cycle, require the ability to integrate and transfer their conceptual understanding to novel situations in a practical way.

The context in which one learns is a formative experience in promoting knowledge transfer.  If knowledge is taught in one dimension then it intrinsically places a barrier to adaptive and flexible learning and its application.  Alternatively, knowledge acquisition taught in multiple contexts promotes a student’s ability to assimilate, analyse, articulate and implement action plans.  This ability to extract knowledge and abstract the concepts and principles relevant to any given situation is undoubtedly promoted through a more flexible multi-context presentation of knowledge.  Furthermore, in a management and leadership development context it presents information in a form that will be more relevant to executive work patterns and operational requirements.

In an educational sense this requires commonality of experience and the conceptual frameworks of the learners and their tutors to ensure that the ability to move easily between the cognitive elements being described and the desired practical outcome is achievable. 

At the centre of Educational Academy’s (ea)  philosophy lies the concept of an integrated curriculum and this is particularly relevant to the demands of a modern career. The programme has been designed and developed from its very inception with this principle at the core of its curriculum.   The ea students may come from widely differing backgrounds and be seeking to qualify experience as a formal qualification, looking for career progression or indeed career preservation.  What ever their background they will bring their own level of personal contribution to the learning environment and ea’s global faculty will facilitate the translation of their knowledge and skills base across multiple context and concepts to develop the strategic corporate leaders of tomorrow.


It is hard to find a comparable offer in the UK whose curriculum and pedagogy is organised using ea’s truly integrated approach to knowledge transfer that seeks to integrate learning, contemporary leadership models, sector expertise and the pressure of corporate life into a single life changing experience.

An article in Business Week by Stefan Szymanski[1] about the effect of “silo” thinking on business schools curriculum highlights that they tend to teach individual disciplines such as accounting, finance or organisational behaviour.  This approach tends to develop a pedagogy that places heavy reliance on facts rather than provide insight or perspective on linkages between areas of potentially associated consequences.   Hence faculty find it difficult to find common threads on which to link subject areas and curriculum.   While tutors may be held in deep regard for their detailed insight and research into particular business issues these tended to develop within a framework re-enforcing isolated thinking from the business process and ignore the broad concepts of cycles and processes across the business as a whole.


A new paradigm is required to prepare executives in different forms of thinking and analysis that place greater emphasis on long term sustainability rather than short term profits.  It also asserts a longer term view of employment practices and employee reward, development and loyalty rather than always seeking to implement down sizing or off-shoring as the natural and obvious way to ensure business viability.  The future ability to deal with the global financial crises will not rest simply on better regulation to prevent it from happening again but it will be that the executive decision makers will have far greater skills in analysing complex multi-contextual issues such that they can build responsive and adaptable businesses.

Thus business schools need to re-invent their approach to learning and trust in the individual to grow and develop their understanding through learning within a multi-contextual and multi-dimensional curriculum.   This will build a generation of more reflective, more socially responsible and more multi-dimensional executives rather than simple dogma driven through classical business school teaching around single business models such as profit maximisation.   No longer is such a simple business model relevant in a post Enron or post global financial melt-down society.    

Business may be viewed as a way of life but business is only part of what makes up our civilisation and society.   A cohesive and integrated approach to social and human capital development are essential in laying the underpinning foundations for the development of society together with their faith structures and the charity of thought and support for others.    Therefore, it is time to revise corporate faith structures solely based around profit maximisation and greed because of their implied corrosive association to society and culture and bring a more tolerant and sustainable attitude to the integration of  business within a modern society.


As we move forward towards this new paradigm, ea has for over ten years has built it’s curriculum on these principles with its team specifically seeking to build an integrated approach to learning.  These build on concepts of the business as a system[2] [3] dependent on its environment or sometimes referred to as a Business Ecology[4] model.

Such approaches require executives to build on the nature of the inter-relatedness of business and society through their corporate and personal feedback mechanisms to re-enforce or limit the role business in society.  The basis for using a truly integrated approach to work has a long history and work done by Roedel et al.[5] indicates improvements in students test results when comparing tradition and integrated curriculum.

The use of concepts maps to represent how people organise their knowledge and the edges and concepts that link them can assist in looking at how a subject can be developed and knowledge transferred efficiently.

Why should an integrated approach to curriculum development be an important element in facilitating knowledge acquisition by the learner?   The basis appears to be based in the fact that as children we learn within multi-dimensional frameworks that teach us the relationship between word, letter, colours, moral parameters and societal boundaries.   MacNamara (1982)[7] in writing about early years learning highlighted a stage he referred to as the “discovery phase” where concepts are learned through patterns, objects or regularities in events etc.   Intuitively, a class room could seek to re-create this discovery phase to develop new aspects to conceptual learning. Thus concepts can be defined as perceived regularity (or pattern) in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by label.

Clearly patterns and regularities could be used as the basis for rote learning rather than meaningful learning.    Meaning learning builds a pathway to knowledge and wisdom as a result of the learner:

  • Being conceptually clear about the learning that has taken place and in any prepared material and able to articulate these clearly;
  • Having  sufficient prior knowledge is present on which to develop the necessary frames of reference and to develop further the critical thinking of the learner;
  • Should be motivated to learn and must want to engage and contribute to the process and how this translates into learning and knowledge acquisition.

This suggests that for meaningful learning to occur the students must grasp the basic concepts that underpin the knowledge being transferred and be able to express them in a coherent way.

Thus an integrated curriculum and the methods used to assess the learners’ progress can be developed to promote a positive and motivating learning experience that provides maximum opportunity to elaborate a range of conceptual frameworks and meaningful learning.

Boud (1993)[8] suggested that in order to turn experience into learning you require the following interrelationships to develop.

The learner
Every learner comes with their own experiential background.  In creating an integrated curriculum the learner plays an equal role in contributing to the success of multi-dimensional and multi-conceptual frameworks through their ability to interpret and relate these experiences to academic frameworks being developed or used.

The milieu
 Through participating in the integrated process learners and tutors contribute to the creation of learning and social environment that involves their contribution to the course, team working and active participation in course work.

Learning strategies
In delivering an integrated strategy the learning outcomes for the programme should relate to the individual learners learning strategy such that their experience of the programme satisfies their expectations, places demands on them to translate their experiences into relevant and appropriate intellectual rigour in answering and participating in class work, and draws together the tutor and the learners knowledge and experience in a mutually beneficial process of knowledge transfer.

Therefore, in preparing for the creation of the integrated curriculum it is important to ensure that staff are able to share a common vision, accept ownership of the integrated curriculum to be developed and understand how they will contribute and what is expected from them professionally.

At this induction stage academic leadership should provide an integrated rationale and a common vision to staff for the programme, provide an opportunity to formally share their background, knowledge and skills with the year group, articulate the knowledge and skills they seek to develop, learner strategies for taking control of their learning in the context of their professional responsibilities on the programme

In the creation of an integrated curriculum the candidate selection process also plays an important element to forming the foundation for a powerful integrated approach to learning.   Thus candidates recruited to the programme must consider their prior knowledge ad how this can contribute to the programme and bring their knowledge and skills into play to support their learning. 

Critical thinking at the induction stage is essential to ensure that students buy into the integrated learning process and understand what it entails.   Therefore it is important that through the recruitment and induction process they become familiar with what it means to study within an integrated curriculum, what their responsibilities are and that they are prepared to sign up to these as well as their obligations to their eventual study group and year group colleagues.

During this induction and recruitment process potential candidates will have been encouraged to reflect on their developmental needs around personal skills, professional skills and technical skills.  


All these activities above should have informed and re-enforced the integrated nature of the curriculum from the staff and students perspective.  In developing an integrated curriculum the delivery team will set out clear aims, responsibilities, curriculum development roles and administrative functions for the team.

An integrated curriculum example

A         Strategic Management Module integration

B          Banking & Finance pathway

From these concept maps it is possible to see the integration of the programmes.

Map A demonstrates the relationships between topics taught within the Strategic Management module and how each topic and subtopic can be seen to relate to others in the module.

Map B highlights the relationship between the core module topics of Strategic Management and Operational management and their coverage of general business principles along side the more specific pathway for Banking & Finance, covering Banking Management and Islamic Finance.  The relationship across specialist programme becomes clear as do the inter-relationships within topics and across topics.

The integrated pedagogy maximises the use of interactive styles of learning to promote knowledge transfer, knowledge transformation and reflection on of knowledge acquisition.

Building a portfolio of case studies, problem based learning, seminar and group working students are able to undertake autonomous learning while benefiting from study group activities.

Using this integrated form of learning promotes the development of skills to assimilate information across multiple contexts and to apply the concepts built up in innovative and creative ways.    Integrated assignment work and the associated formative and summative assessment systems then becomes a routine style of review and reflection of subject matter and its analysis.


From this paper the nature of an integrated curriculum should be seen to reflect the nature of normal business processes.   Individuals rarely encounter single dimension issues and it unlikely that their response will impact on only one element of the business operations.   Thus an integrated approach to learning and corporate development is an integrated approach to delivering a sustainable business.

Business is a complex inter-related and multi-dimensional system and most conventional business models seek to simplify and reduce business solutions to point interventions.  In contrast a new paradigm might be a more natural learning and development strategy that reflects “real business” and indeed personal challenges.  This will embrace a business model that accepts complexity and builds executive training and skills development in a way capable of handling and processing complex multi-level conceptual models and converting these into well analysed solutions capable of being implemented.

Such an approach to continuous professional develop minimises the risk of silo thinking, avoid group thinking[9] [10], provides a systems approach to operating business and relinquishes old profit maximising models for ones that transform their attitude to business based on trust and  shared values capable of building sustainable businesses.

Therefore, an integrated curriculum underpins an integrated corporate and individual development process that can only enhance business success and transformation.

[1] Szymanski, S., (2008)
[2] Senge, P. M. (1990) The Fifth Discipline. The art and practice of the learning organization, London: Random House.
[3] Senge, P., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R., Roth, G. and Smith, B. (1999) The Dance of Change: The Challenges of Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations, New York: Doubleday/Currency)

[4] Abe, J., M., Bassett, D.A., Dempsey, P.,E., Business Ecology: Giving Your Organization the Natural Edge (2008), Butterworth Heinemann.

[5]Roedel, R.J., El-Ghazaly, S. , Reeds Roads, T. and El-Sharawy, E.
[7] Macnamara, J. (1982). Names for things: A study of human learning. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.
[8] Boud, J. (1993), Experience as a base for learning. Higher education research and development, Vol 19 (1) 33-44
[9] Janis, Irving L.  (1972). Victims of Groupthink.  New York: Houghton Mifflin.
[10] Ahlfinger, N. R. & Esser, J. K. (2001). Testing the groupthink model: Effects of promotional leadership and conformity predisposition. Social Behaviour & Personality: An International Journal, 29(1), 31-42.